THE DISPERSION OF GREEK EDUCATION 71 the very same topics which they discuss in tame and bloodless phraseology."* The antithesis here presented between knowledge as an individual pursuit and knowledge as a means to public ends— in effect, between Greek philosophy and Roman oratory— is even more sharply stated by Quintilian. While admitting with Cicero that the orator needs to know philosophy and making provision for training the future orator in the relevant branches of the subject, he expressly denies that he has any wish to make the orator a philosopher. " No other mode of life," he says, " has withdrawn itself further from the duties of civil life and all that concerns an orator. Which of the philosophers ever frequented courts of justice, or distinguished himself in public ' assemblies ? Which of them ever engaged in the management of political affairs, on which most of them have given such earnest precepts ? But I should desire the orator, whom I am trying to form, to be a kind of Roman wise man, who may prove himself a true statesman, not by private discussions but by personal experience and efforts in public life."f F°r Quintilian, as for Cato, whom he quotes, the ideal orator is "the good man skilled in speech" ; and he thinks no higher human type is conceivable. Man, he points out in another passage, is superior to the animals in virtue and in speech; and therefore his distinctive excellence consists as much in eloquence (oratio) as in reason (ratio). On this account he regards the orator as the only complete man, and the philosopher by comparison as essentially inferior. In his treatise on the making of the perfect orator, who is the ideal man of the Roman educator, Quintilian gives a full account of the course to be followed by the pupil from the time he begins to speak and gets his first lessons in early childhood till he acquires perfect mastery of the grand art. As the course is just that of the best Roman education, there is no need to go over it in detail here. The real interest of the book is not in the information it provides, valuable as that is, but in the fact that it is a description and discussion of the educational practice of Rome from within by the most successful teacher of his time. Considered in this way, the most striking feature of the book is the view it gives of the educational process as it concerns the pupil* * De Orator*, i, 13. f xii, 6,7.